What does the latest research have to say about what we experience as we work, live, travel, study, serve, and volunteer abroad?


Constant Foreigner will read all of the dense academic literature we can find and disseminate it for you in easy-to-understand formats. Hopefully we’ll get an idea of what it is we’re experiencing and find ways to cope.


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Any other research models you’d like to see presented? Send us an email!

Lysgaard's U-Curve of Cultural Adjustment

Lysgaard’s U-Curve of Cultural Adjustment


Learn about one of the first models of cultural adjustment Lysgaard developed in 1955. While it doesn’t apply to everyone, especially to the same degree, it’s helpful to understand in order to set an expectation of what might happen when you begin your cross-cultural experience. 

Extension of the U-Curve Hypothesis

Extension of the U-Curve Hypothesis

There are limitations on the degree and level to which this model applies to every person, but John and Jeanne Gullahorn’s extension of the U-Curve hypothesis takes the culture shock model to where sojourners rarely expect to experience it…upon their return home!

Edward T. Hall's Cultural Iceberg Model

Edward T. Hall’s Cultural Iceberg Model

Most of what we experience of another culture is based upon a foundation of norms, values, and attitudes that are hidden beneath the surface. Edward T. Hall’s model helps us understand how actions of another culture stem from these hidden depths.

Acculturation Metaphor: Square, Circle, Stop Sign

Acculturation Metaphor

This metaphor teaches sojourners about changes they can expect to their identity as they spend more time in another culture. The more time you spend learning the traditions, behaviors, and values of another culture the more you begin to adopt them in your own life. This, in turn, changes the way you are perceived.